EFFECT OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP IN DIGITAL PROMOTION MIXES TO GO-JEK ADVANTAGE

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Suroyo

(Lecturer, Mitra Karya University)

INTRODUCTION

Currently there are various types of transportation that use online ordering, for example Go-jek, GrabBike, Grab Taxi, etc. But keep in mind that the pioneer of online transportation is Go-Jek. Go-jek has been a pioneer in digital motorcycle taxis since 2011. Go-jek has become popular among Indonesians in 2011, especially in big cities. So that it can be said that Go-Jek is the leader of Ojek online / digital transportation companies. Since its first appearance, Go-Jek has used a Digital system where people can order online which aims to make it easier for people to use the motorcycle taxi. The more time goes by many competitors that emerge with the same work system as Go-jek. The most dangerous competitor is GribBike. Basically Go-Jek and GrabBike have similarities in terms of ordering systems. In addition, passengers will get helmets, masks and face covers. GrabBike added another facility, a raincoat. However, because Gojek was present, Go-Jek was able to maneuver more agile. One of them is the expansion of Gojek to Bali, Bandung and Surabaya.

After emerging competitors similar to Go-Jek, Go-Jek did a number of ways to keep Go-Jek in existence among the Indonesian people. Go-Jek adds services that can be utilized by the Indonesian people, of course, to facilitate all community affairs and not be owned by competitors such as GrabBike, Blu Jek, etc. namely Go-Food, Go-Shopping and Go-Courier. So now Go-jek is not only running around to pick up the community but Go-Jek also helps consumers in delivering and picking up goods, buying cinema tickets, delivering food so that consumers do not need to go outside and free to queue. This is certainly an advantage for the Go-Jek company compared to other companies. Moreover, the founder of Go-Jek himself is a native Indonesian, so this is also an advantage for the Go-Jek company. Because it will be easier in terms of attracting the hearts of the people of Indonesia.

Meanwhile, from the service side, GrabBike has the potential to develop services similar to Gojek. It is estimated that GrabBike was able to create a different program so that consumers consider GrabBike to be different from Go-Jek. For this reason, differentiation between Go-Jek and GrabBike is needed. One of the added values provided by GrabBike is medical insurance. GrabBike will provide insurance to drivers and passengers in the event of an accident.

As time goes by, more and more people’s needs and the culture of society are increasingly modern. Go-Jek remains consistent in carrying out its business in the digital transportation world, existing service services namely Go-Food, Go-Shopping, Go-Courier and Go-Jek are themselves the mainstay of this company to win the competition to win the hearts of the Indonesian people. In fact, the plan is that Go-jek will work with the government so that Go-jek can join or cooperate with TransJakarta. The new service that will be issued is Go-Busway. This is done in order to be able to help motorists and busway passengers. In terms of scheduling and checking fleet readiness then look for GO-JEK to be more timely to the office.

Problem Identification
1.Is there a influenced interpersonal relationships to the advantage of resources go-jek in jakarta?
2.Is there a public relations influenced to the advantage of resources go-jek in jakarta?
3.Is there a influenced advertising, interpersonal relations, sales promotion, and public relations resources simultaneously towards excellence go-jek in jakarta?

Research purposes
1.Knowing influenced interpersonal relationships to the advantage of resources go-jek in Jakarta.
2.Knowing influenced public relations resources to excellence go-jek in Jakarta.
3.Knowing influenced advertising, interpersonal relations, sales promotion, and public relations resources simultaneously towards excellence go-jek in Jakarta.

Usability of Research
1.Provides information about influenced interpersonal relationships to the advantage of resources go-jek in Jakarta.
2.Provides information about influenced public relations resources to excellence go-jek in Jakarta.
3.Provides information about influenced advertising, interpersonal relations, sales promotion, and public relations resources simultaneously towards excellence go-jek in Jakarta.

Research Hypothesis
1.Knowing influenced interpersonal relations to sales volume go-jek in Jakarta.
2.Knowing influenced public relations to sales volume go-jek in Jakarta.
3.Knowing influenced advertising, interpersonal relations, sales promotion, and public relations resources simultaneously towards excellence go-jek in Jakarta.

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

Digital Promotion Mix Theory

Promotional activities are carried out with the aim of attracting the attention of customers to buy an item or service. Besides that the promotion process that was carried out, will accidentally build positive communication which is carried out in two directions, namely from the producer to the consumer, consciously the communication that is generated will build good relations that impact the sales output

Promotional activities can be carried out in several ways called the promotion mix, are elements in the company’s marketing mix that are utilized to notify, persuade, and remind about the company’s products.The promotional mix activities include advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal sales and direct marketing, the five aspects of the promotion mix are used persuasively to convey the value contained in a product, as well as building good relations with the community.

 

Community Relationship

Public relations is a communication effort made by the company to influence the views and judgments of the company. The group in question is a person who has interests in the company such as employees, mass media and even the customers themselves. The aim is to enhance the reputation and maintain the good name of the company so that the company’s goals can be achieved.

According to Abi Asmana (2018) there are many definitions of public relations according to experts, some of which are as follows:

Betrand R. Canfield, said that Public Relations is a management function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies policies and rules of a person or institution in the public interest and implements an activity program to gain public understanding and acceptance.

JC Seidel, stated that Public Relations is a continuous process of management’s efforts to obtain goodwill and analysis and improvement to oneself, coming out by holding statements.

Howard Bonham, said that Public Relations is an art to create a better public understanding, which can deepen public trust in someone or an institution or body.

 

Interpersonal relations

Direct selling means that it is actually done directly from the company to consumers without retailers and so on, in this type of marketing, companies use media or tools to be able to market their products such as magazines, catalogs, brochure leaflets as often found in the streets and do not forget with the internet that is endemic among companies. Indeed today the internet is an active media used by companies for marketing.

Like PT Go-jek Indonesia which combines the internet and smartphone sophistication so it can market transportation services online. Along with this, PT Go-jek also gives freedom to consumers of go-jek service users to assess the services they have received. So indirectly, giving the assessment is a means of direct communication between companies and consumers to get real responses

From the analysis of the Promotion Mix Theory, the Researcher will use variables. Promotion Mixed, namely Advertising, Sales Promotion, Interpersonal Relations, and Public Relations as independent variables in Go-jek services in Jakarta.

 

Previous Research Indonesia

Nurul Biyantika Permatasari (2018) in his research entitled “The Effect of Brand Image and Promotion on Go-Jek Consumer Loyalty in Wonocolo District Surabaya” is the result of quantitative research aimed at answering questions about whether brand image has a partial effect on consumer loyalty Go-jek in Wonocolo District of Surabaya, does promotion have a partial effect on consumer loyalty of Go-jek in Wonocolo District of Surabaya and whether brand image and promotion are simultaneously simultaneous to Go-Jek consumer loyalty in Wonocolo District, Surabaya.

The method used in this study is the distribution of questionnaires (questionnaires) with non probability sampling techniques using the quota sampling method. The population in this study were Go-Jek consumers in the Wonocolo District area with a minimum of 2 or more uses with a sample of 150 people. The results obtained showed that brand image and promotion had a simultaneous effect on consumer loyalty of Go-Jek in Wonocolo District, Surabaya. Partial brand image variables have no effect on consumer loyalty in Wonocolo Surabaya District while promotion is a variable that influences the loyalty of Go-Jek consumers in Wonocolo District Surabaya.

Researchers suggest further research to add other variables related to consumer loyalty. So that it can provide a broader picture of what factors influence consumer loyalty in addition to brand image and promotion.

Fatoni’s research, Muhammad. (2013) entitled The Effect of Promotion Mix on the Purchase Decision Process (Study of Consumers in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing). aims to determine how the promotion mix influences the consumer purchasing decision process of Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing both partially and simultaneously. In addition, it is also to look for promotional mix elements that have a dominant influence on consumer decision processes in buying a house in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing. The independent variables in this study are promotional mix (X) which consists of personal sales (X1), advertising (X2), sales promotion (X3), and public relations (X4). While the dependent variable in this study is the process of purchasing decisions (Y).

This research uses quantitative research methods and is descriptive and explanatory research. The population in this study were consumers who bought a house in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing in 2010-2012, totaling 109 people. The number of samples used was 95 respondents who were determined using proportional random sampling. The instrument used in this study was a closed type questionnaire. The analysis used is multiple regression analysis, by testing hypotheses using the t test and F test.

The results of this study indicate that partially advertising variable (X2), sales promotion (X3), and public relations (X4) have a significant influence on the consumer purchasing decision process in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing. While the personal sales variable (X1) does not have an influence on the consumer purchasing decision process (Y) in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing. Simultaneously the promotion mix (X) which includes personal sales (X1), advertising (X2), sales promotion (X3), and public relations (X4) together have a significant influence on the process of consumer purchasing decisions at Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing . Advertising variable (X1) has a dominant influence on the consumer purchasing decision process in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing.

Based on this research, the suggestion that can be stated is that Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing will continue to increase its promotional activities especially for advertising activities, sales promotion, and public relations so that consumers are more interested in purchasing a house in Griya Tirta Aji Malang Housing. For further researchers, so that research is directed at other variables besides the promotion mix that have an influence on the consumer purchasing decision process in buying a home

Rohmah’s research, Nur Ainy (2015) entitled Analysis of the Effect of Promotion of Sharia Savings Products on Increasing the Number of Customers (Case Study in Several BMTs in Salatiga City and Semarang District) using independent variables Promotion Mix (Advertising, Salles Promotion, Publicity , Personal Selling, and Direct Marketing), while the dependent variable is the increase in the number of customers

The population in this study were several BMT customers in Salatiga City and Kab. Semarang in 2013-2014. The number of BMTs in Salatiga City and Semarang Regency taken is 10 BMTs, with an estimated more than 25 0 customers per BMT. While the total population to be taken is 2,500 customers.

Sampling using random sampling. The analysis technique used is classical assumption test analysis, validity test, reliability test and multiple regression analysis. Hypothesis testing uses t test, F test and coefficient of determination. The results of this study indicate that the Promotion Mix together (simultaneous) affects the increase in the number of customers. However, if individually Advertising has a positive and significant effect on increasing the number of customers, Personal Selling has a positive and significant effect on increasing the number of customers, Public Relations has a positive and significant effect on increasing the number of customers, while Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing have positive but not positive effects significant increase in the number of customers.

Akhmad Mahdi (2018) in his research entitled The Effect of Promotion on Customer Loyalty Gojek Dan Grab Case Study gives the results of research and discussion described can be drawn Conclusions as follows: Promotion does not significantly influence the loyalty of Grab and Gojek online motorcycle taxi customers, with a significance value of 0.183 and the coefficient of determination is 3.34%. That is, promotions only have an influence of 3.34% on the loyalty of Grab and Gojek online motorcycle taxi customers. While the remaining 96.66% is the influence of other free factors.

To increase consumer loyalty to online motorcycle taxi applications, the following suggestions can be given: 1) Consumers tend to choose applications that offer low prices, then reasonable and competitive pricing is an option that must always be considered 2) Other influential factors towards customer loyalty is driver reliability and driver professionalism in providing services to customers, then good education to drivers is also a necessity, no longer the target points that are always a reference but atitude in interacting with customers is the main thing. From the results of the above studies, it can be concluded in a table of results comparison between studies as follows:

 

Foreign Research

Andrew T. Stephen (2015) in his research entitled The Role of Digital and Social Media Marketing in Consumer Behavior This article reviews the recently published research on consumers on the Five themes and social marketing media settings identified: (i) consumer digital culture, (ii) responses to digital advertising, (iii) the effects of the digital environment on consumer behavior, (iv) cellular environment, and (v) online word of mouth (WOM)

Effectively these articles explain many different angles of how consumers experience, influence, and are influenced by the digital environment in which they are part of their daily lives. It remains to be understood, and existing knowledge tends to disproportionately focus on WOM, which is part of the digital consumer experience. Timeless directives for future research have been advanced to encourage researchers to consider a broader range of phenomena.

Robert C. Blattberg (2010) discusses important topics of consumer sales promotion, strategic perspectives, and empirical. From a consumer point of view, the theory of transaction utility behavior, smart shopper, and reference prices provides insight into why consumers respond strongly to promotions rather than price reductions. It is important for managers to know the sources of additional volume of promotion, because this plays a major role in determining the profitability of promotions for both producers and retailers. When the volume source is brand replacement, promotion can be very profitable for producers, but it is only profitable for retailers when consumers are switched to higher margin items. For many categories, when incremental volume sources are accelerating purchases and stockpiling, sales promotions will not benefit producers unless they lead to increased consumption.

Consumers will only change their time of purchase, especially loyal customers. When the source of additional volume is an increase in the number of consumer purchases in the category, sales promotion can be profitable for retailers and producers. An important and unresolved problem is when promotion attracts new consumers into the category (or increases consumption of categories), can sustainable promotion activities make these new consumers buy in the category and / or maintain an increase in current consumer consumption levels? If so, promotion can be expanded to an overall category and lead to increased profitability of manufacturers and retailers.

According to Baohong Sun (2005) in the Promotion Effect on Endogenous Consumption , Marketing Science , Vol. 24, No. 3, Summer 2005, pp. 430–443 , Managers rely on periodic price promotions to stimulate demand, and this trend is expected to increase overtime. If promotions only induce brand turnover and buy transfers without encouraging consumption, promotion becomes less effective strategy unless it can significantly attract new users from other stores or other categories.

Conventional selected models cannot handle the effects of active promotion endogenous consumption because they assume a constant or exogenous level of consumption. That is important to understand how consumption responds to promotions. In this paper, we allow consumption to be a decision variable that is driven endogenously by promotion and propose a dynamic structural model with endogenous consumption under uncertainty of promotion test the effects of promotion on consumption.

Based on in this model, we investigate the problem of whether promotion has an impact on consumption and supply explanation of broad-minded behavior about whether, why, and how consumption is affected by promotion. Manufacturers usually start promotions to attract new user or brand switcher. Retailers often offer promotions to increase store sales. Apply the model proposed for tuna and yogurt data, we found some important interesting empirical results implications for producers and retailers.

According to Harald J. van Heerde, Sachin Gupta, and Dick R. Wittink (2002) Is 3/4 of the Sales Promotion Bump Due to Brand Switching? No, it is 1/3. in the Journal of Marketing Research has outlined the elasticity of sales promotions based on households scanner panel data. The main result is that most of the sales promotion elasticity, around 74 the average percent, is associated with the effects of secondary demand (brand transfer) and the rest for the effect of primary demand (time acceleration and quantity increase). We show this the results do not imply that if a brand gets 100 units in sales during the promotion of another brand at category lost 74 units (74 percent). We offer complementary decomposition based sizes unit sales. This measure shows the current ratio of unit sales across brands with the increase in unit sales of their own brand during promotion, and we report empirical results for this measurement.

Harald J. van Heerde, Peter SH Leeflang, Dick R. Wittink (2004) that generate increased sales of short-term sales substantially. To determine whether a sales promotion is bumps are really useful from a managerial perspective, we propose a store level regression model system which describes the increase in sales promotion into three parts: cross-brand effects (secondary demand), cross-period effects (primary demand borrowed from other time periods), and expansion-category effects (remaining) primary request).

In four store level scanner data sets, we found that each of these three parts contributed about one third on average. One extension that we propose is the separation of the effect of the expansion of categories into cross shop effects and market expansion. The other is to divide the cross-item effect (total in all others items) become cannibalization and inter-brand effects. We also allow flexible decomposition by making it possible all effects depend on the condition of the feature / display support and on the size of the price discount. That the last dependency is achieved by local polynomial regression. We found that price discounts were supported by features strongly related to cross-period effects while special price discounts are supported in particular strong category expansion effect. While the role of the category expansion effect tends to increase even higher price discounts, cross-brand roles and cross-period influences both tend to decline.

 

RESEARCH METHODS

Research design

Research design is a strategy chosen by researchers to thoroughly integrate the research components in a logical and systematic way to discuss and analyze what is the focus of research. Research designs that are often used in both qualitative and quantitative research include experimental research designs, surveys or cross-sectional, longitudinal, case studies, and comparatives. We can apply which research design is most suitable to be applied in the qualitative or quantitative research we use.

The description of the above understanding alludes to the integration of all research components, which means that research design is a comprehensive form of the research plan. This comprehensive word, of course, covers everything, namely all the research components needed, from research questions, data types, methods, to the analysis that is intended to be carried out.

Here, all these components are determined while determining the research design chosen by the researcher. Some research designs are more often applied in quantitative research. While some others are more often applied in qualitative research. There are also common designs used in both quantitative and qualitative research. The following are some types or types of research designs that can be chosen.

This study uses a case study study of Go-jek consumer behavior in Jakarta. The study design was done with the aim of exploring the specific and contextual issues in depth. The scope of case study research design is very limited and the results almost always cannot be applied to other contexts or places. For example, research on Go-jek consumption promotion patterns in Surabaya. This research can be done by designing other case study studies .

Case studies as designs chosen in research use a quantitative research approach. Quantitative research with case study design applies survey methods with the use of questionnaires as research instruments.The survey method as a data collection technique used in this study uses a closed list of questions in the form of multiple choices with a Likert Scale where 1 = disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = agree, 4 = strongly agree.

 

Sampling technique

Understanding of sampling techniques according to Sugiyono (2001) is: Sampling technique is a sampling technique (Sugiyono, 2001: 56). The definition of sampling technique according to Margono (2004) is: Sampling technique is a way to determine the sample whose amount is in accordance with the sample size that will be used as the actual data source, taking into account the characteristics and distribution of populations in order to obtain a representative sample.

To determine the sample in the study, there are various sampling techniques used. The sampling technique based on the presence of randomization, ie random sampling of the collection, can be grouped into 2, namely nonprobability sampling and probability sampling. These sampling techniques can be seen in the following scheme.

According to Sugiyono (2001), to determine the sample to be used in research, there are various sampling techniques used. Schematically shown in the following diagram: T sampling techniques can be grouped into two, namely: Probability Sampling and Non probability Sampling. Included in the probability sampling group are simple random sampling, proportionate stratified random sampling, disproportionate stratified random sampling, and area (cluster) sampling (also called sampling by region). Whereas the types of nonprobability sampling included: systematic sampling, quota sampling, accidental sampling, purposive sampling, saturated sampling, and snowball sampling.

This study uses Simple Random Sampling which is stated to be simple (simple) because sampling of population members is done randomly regardless of the strata that exist in that population. Simple random sampling is a technique for getting samples that are directly carried out on the sampling unit. Then each sampling unit as an isolated population element has the same opportunity to be a sample or to represent its population. This method is done if members of the population are considered homogeneous. The technique can be used if the number of sampling units in a population is not too large. The method of sampling by simple random sampling can be done by lottery, ordinal, or random number tables.

The choice of sampling technique must be based on 2 important things, namely, reliability and efficiency. Reliable samples are samples that have high reliability. It can be interpreted that the smaller the sampling error, the lower the sampling reliability. If it is associated with a statistical value variant, the criteria apply that the lower the variance, the higher the reliability of the sample obtained.

According to Dalen (1981), several steps must be considered by the researcher in determining the sample, namely:

1.Determining the population in this case is 200 Go-jek customers
2.Looking for accurate population unit data in this case taken from students.
3.Choose samples that are representative with Slovin formula namely Sample = Population / 1 + Population x erroe squared standard
4.Determine an adequate number of samples. or as much or n = 200/1 + 200x / 0.5×0.5 = 135 respondents

 

RESEARCH RESULT

The creative industry is getting more attention as a department economic contributors (Jones, Comfort, Eastwood, & Hillier, 2004) and considered as the main source of competitive advantage in the global today economy (Florida, 2002). Research on managing the creative industry sector is a timely consideration for the experts of sin problems faced by managers in this field has increased relevance with those who are on many other industrial settings (Lampel et al., 2000). Detailed marketing strategies for gojek. Today’s online marketing strategy is very much needed by large companies. They seem to be competing for the hearts of consumers to consistently use or use their products or services. No doubt, … they must explore the world of online business along with online marketing strategies that are very much applied today.

Not only big companies, especially small companies, certainly need a good marketing system and strategy to be able to compete with big companies. Of course this is accompanied by how much costs must be incurred for marketing tariffs, whether conventional marketing or online marketing. Meanwhile online marketing tactics will certainly be different from the conventional ones. Apply online / digital marketing strategies to increase visibility and involvement with content, products, or services in devices and internet media.

Check demand behavior on common or special search engines or other online world-based material. Examine research, data, or technology to understand user intentions, and measure results for ongoing marketing optimization. Online marketing tactics are methods for giving consumers news as cyberspace users about what they hope to offer. In terms of business and business, all news about it is really needed so that the products and services produced can be known by consumers to satisfy the need for information.

As the ethics of online world development grows rapidly, various products are offered by entrepreneurs in cyberspace, ranging from food, goods and services and so forth. With the right promotion, sales can increase sharply. If you are familiar with the brand, it will certainly make it easier if you are in promotion. If your brand is still new, if you are required to be more creative in marketing your product, if you sell fast, sell well.

 

CONCLUSION

This online marketing is not only no longer an alternative for the company but has become an obligation and necessity for every company that always imitates the development of issues, this will certainly give you convenience for colleagues or the wider community. All a professional website can give the impression and seriousness of a company. Penyampaian berita ini amat dianjurkan memakai bahasa yang mudah dimengerti dan diingat agar berita terbuat mudah dicerna oleh masyarakat sebagai terget pasar yang mau digapai.

 

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